logoZilliqa (ZIL)

High-throughput smart contract processing platform

What is Zilliqa (ZIL)?

  • Zilliqa is a public blockchain platform that is designed to scale financial transactions.
  • Zilliqa utilizes sharding technology, which enables increased transaction rates as the network expands. The team states the latest experimental results demonstrate a throughput of more than 2,800 transactions per second.
  • In addition to scalability, Zilliqa aims to provide a secure and efficient smart-contract layer to enable security-by-design smart contract programming and verification.
  • Zilliqa's mission is to create a network that is "scalable and functional", while staying true to blockchain security principles.


Price$0.005497 (76 sats)
24H Mkt. Cap ($MM)$65.91 MM
24H Volume ($MM)$12.10 MM
Circ. Supply11,990,995,310 ZIL (57.10%)
Total Supply21,000,000,000 ZIL
All-time High USD$0.18 (10 May 18)
All-time High BTC2,039 sats (10 May 18)
Project Websitehttps://zilliqa.com


  • Raised ~$18.3MM (43,942 ETH) via private token sales in December 2017
  • Launched mainnet on 31 January 2019
  • Utilizes sharding technology to achieve scaling without sacrificing security and decentralization
  • Implements PoW consensus for node identification, and pBFT for processing transactions


  • Nov 2019: Launch of StraitsX, XSGD, stablecoin with Xfers
  • Oct 2019: Launch of ZILHive Accelerator programme in collaboration with LongHash Incubator
  • Sep 2019: Release of Mainnet v5.0.0
  • Aug 2019: Joined the OpenNodes Initiative as founding member
  • May 2019: Introduction of the ZIL Cashflow Smart Contract Analyser
  • Apr 2019: Implemented support for external libraries in Scilla
  • Apr 2019: Release of Moonlet Wallet on Chrome Extension
  • Feb 2019: Zilliqa announced its Bug Bounty Program
  • Jan 2019: Mainnet launch

Key Features of the Zilliqa Network

  • Two-layer blockchain structure: Directory Service ("DS") blockchain stores the identities of the nodes in the network, while the Transaction ("TX") blockchain stores information on the transactions validated by the network.
  • Scilla: the Zilliqa team has proposed a new smart contract language, Scilla, which scales better for applications such as automated auctions, shared economy, and financial modelling.
  • Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance ("pBFT"): Zilliqa uses an improved version of pBFT to achieve a more even payout for each node, lower communication overhead, and instant block finality to eliminate the need for block confirmations.



Token NameZIL
Token TypeERC-20 at TGE
Private Sale Allocation27.3% of Total Supply
Private Token Sale Date1 Oct 2017 to 20 Dec 2017
Private Token Sale Price$0.0032
Amount Raised in Private Sale~$18.3MM (43,942 ETH)
Public Sale Allocation2.7% of Total Supply
Public Token Sale Date27 Dec 2017 to 4 Jan 2018
Public Token Sale Price$0.0038
Amount Raised in Public Sale~$2.2MM (4,947 ETH)
Circulating Supply12,013,965,609 (41.7%)

Token Supply Distribution:

  • Private sale tokens make up 27.3% of total token supply.
  • Public sale tokens make up 2.7% of total token supply.
  • Team is allocated 5.0% of total token supply (unlocked in Jan 2019).
  • Advisors received 2.1% of total token supply.
  • Strategic sale tokens make up 10.0% of total token supply.
  • Token treasury constitutes 12.0% of total token supply.
  • One-time advisors receives 0.9% of total token supply.
  • Mining is allocated 40% of total token supply.

Private Token Sale:

  • Conducted from 1 October 2017 to 20 December 2017 for 5,725,875,682 ZIL at a rate of 130,305 ZIL = 1 ETH and raised a total of 43,942 ETH (~$18.3MM) at ~$0.0032 per token, selling 27.3% of total token supply.

Public Token Sale:

  • Conducted on 27 December 2017 to 4 January 2018 for 574,107,038 ZIL at a rate of 116,052 ZIL = 1 ETH and raised a total of 4,947 ETH (~$2.2MM) at ~$0.0038 per token, selling 2.7% of total token supply.

Token Governance & Use of Funds

The Zilliqa team lists its use of sales proceeds as the following:

  • 4.5% to Key Partnerships
  • 13.6% to Marketing
  • 5% to Founding Team
  • 24.6% to Development
  • 4.5% to Community Engagement and Bounty Programmes
  • 5.5% to Compliance, Legal and Finance
  • 13.6% to Cloud Hosting, Operations, Equipment
  • 15% to Anquan Capital, which funds new ventures like Anqlave (secure chips) to support Zilliqa's infrastructure
  • 13.7% to Research

Zilliqa holds its funds in cold storage with multi-signature wallets. The keys are held by 3 different persons, whose identity the team chose not to disclose for security purposes. 2 out of 3 signatures are required to unlock the multi-sig wallet.

Zilliqa Token Release Schedule

The following chart represents the number and breakdown of all ZIL tokens that are to be released into circulation on a monthly basis.

Note: It is estimated that the remaining tokens allocated to mining will continue to be released till 2040. However this rate can change as the number of Guard Nodes decrease.

ZIL Token Overview & Use Cases

ZIL is the core utility token of the Zilliqa network. A few examples of the use cases of the ZIL token include:

  • Incentive for PoW mining
  • Payment as gas fees for smart contract execution
  • Tender for transaction fees


Zilliqa has been on time for most communicated milestones. The Project communicates with the community via biweekly project updates. All blog updates can be found here.

2017: Q3Technical Whitepaper released2017: Q3On timeN/A
2018: Q1Scilla design document2018: Q1On timeGithub
2018: Q1Zilliqa source code released2018: Q1On timeGithub
2019: Q1Bootstrap Phase ends2019: Q2LateMedium
2018: Q2Testnet v1.0 release: Red Prawn2018: Q2On timeMedium
2018: Q2Testnet v2.0 release: D242018: Q2On timeMedium
2018: Q4Testnet v3.0 release: Mao Shan Wang2018: Q4On timeMedium
2018: Q4Mainnet launch2019: Q1LateMedium
2019: Q2Token Swap endsN/AN/AN/A
2019: Q3Zilliqa Core Protocol enhancements2019: Q3N/AOn time
2019: Q3Core protocol refactoring and Scilla enhancements2019: Q3N/AOn time
2019: Q4Support for higher-level languagesN/AN/AN/A

Commercial Partnerships and Business Development Progress

The Project lists 3 verticals in which they pursue constantly:

Digital Advertising (with Mindshare and Aqilliz)

  • Programmatic advertising suffers from ad frauds and too many intermediaries that reduce the value that the advertisers get for their money. Mindshare is using Zilliqa's blockchain to tackle these issues within Project Proton.
  • For more information on Project Proton, see here.
  • Aqilliz, a sister company of Zilliqa, will be focused on building this ad-tech blockchain-based product for Mindshare clients.
  • For more information on Aqilliz, see here.

Financial service (with Hg Exchange and Xfers)

  • Security Token Offerings ("STO") present a new way to tokenize esoteric asset-backed securities like a fleet of aircraft, or patents and licensing agreements for example, which are harder to securitize with traditional methods. This offers greater flexibility to investors by enabling fractional ownership at lower costs, making it more accessible to new investors seeking to enter the space.
  • Hg Exchange is a joint venture between Maicoin and Zilliqa, with Phillip Securities, PrimePartners, RHT Capital and Fundnel as the first members of this exchange platform. Hg Exchange aims to be the first compliant STO platform in Southeast Asia and is currently applying for the Monetary Authority of Singapore ("MAS") fintech regulatory sandbox.
  • For more information on the Hg exchange, see here.
  • StraitsX is a stablecoin initiative for Southeast Asia launched by Xfers in partnership with Zilliqa.
  • For more information on Xfers, see here.

Gaming (with Krypton)

  • Blockchains provide a useful tool for gamers for various reasons including decentralized asset exchanges, verifiable scarcity of virtual objects and collectibles, fast and secure payment networks, and an ability for developers to properly monetize their creations.
  • The most popular implementation of blockchain technology for gaming is with non-fungible assets. In gaming, these assets can be anything from game skins to virtual cards part of a specific game that are verifiably scarce. The authenticity of individual virtual items is guaranteed using smart contract standards such as the ERC-721 non-fungible token standard and the newer ERC-1155 reference implementation on top of Ethereum network.
  • Zilliqa and Krypton are currently working together to create non-fungible token templates and gaming SDKs for gaming studios around the world to launch their blockchain games on top of the Zilliqa network. Blockchain mobile game Zilliqa Planet is available on both iOS and Android devices.


Amrit Kumar
President & Chief Scientific Officer
Anton Trunov
Research Engineer
Antonio Nicolas Nunez
Lead Core Developer
Aparna Narayan
Communications Manager
Arthur Cheong
VP, Growth & Strategy
Ashley Wang
Marketing and Operations Executive
Clark Yang
Core Developer
Gareth Mensah
Developer Evangelist
Haichuan Liu
Core Developer
Han Wen Chua
VP, Ecosystem Growth
Ilya Sergey
Lead Language Designer
Jacob Johannsen
Compiler Developer
Jun Hao Tan
Core Developer
Juzar Motiwalla
Co-Founder and Board Member
Kaustubh Shamshery
​Core Developer
Kenneth Bok
​Head of Growth & Strategy
Madhav Khandelwal
Mark Kamphuis
​Head of Brand & Marketing
Max Kantelia
​Co-Founder and Board Member
Milan Shoukri
​Marketing Manager
Prateek Saxena
Co-Founder and Board Member
Saiba Kataruka
Developer Marketing Lead
Sandip Bhoir
Core Developer
Vaivaswatha Nagaraj
Compiler Developer
Xinshu Dong
Co-Founder and Board Member
Yaoqi Jia
Co-Founder and Board Member



The ZIL token is listed on more than 40 exchanges, according to CoinMarketCap. Core crypto trading pairs include ZIL/BTC, ZIL/USDT, and ZIL/ETH. Core fiat trading pairs include ZIL/KRW and ZIL/USD. Below is the breakdown of ZIL's volume by its top trading pairs.


Github Overview

Zilliqa has 17 public repositories. The team decided not to share the private repositories at this time.

Top Public Github Repositories


Zilliqa is a high-throughput public blockchain platform - designed to scale to thousands of transactions per second.

36 Contributors7,228 commits

Scilla - A Smart Contract Intermediate Level Language

14 Contributors909 commits

Nucleus Wallet is a free, open-source, Zilliqa Test Net Wallet.

2 Contributors144 commits

JavaScript library for Zilliqa blockchain

11 Contributors496 commits

RPC Server for Zilliqa

5 Contributors325 commits


Network Overview

Zilliqa's network consists of several group of nodes, and each of them is called a shard. A special shard among these is referred to as Directory Service ("DS") committee. The DS committee acts as a supervisory shard and helps in the formation of shards and aggregate transaction validation results from each shard among others.

Zilliqa leverages on the shards for parallel processing of transactions. Each shard and the DS committee run an optimized pBFT for consensus on valid transactions. In pBFT, there is deterministic finality of blocks, unlike the probabilistic finality in Nakamoto consensus (in BTC, ETH). Therefore, there is no need for several block confirmation, the latest state of the latest block is the "truth" of the chain.

Blockchains in Zilliqa

There are two blockchains in Zilliqa's architecture: the DS blockchain and TX blockchain. The DS blockchain stores the identities of the nodes in the network, while the TX blockchain stores information on the transactions validated by the network. blockchain

Time for each blockchain epoch are:

  • TX block epochs are dynamic (1-2 mins).
  • DS block epochs are dynamic and dependent on TX epochs (1-2 hours).

Transaction Model

Zilliqa uses an account-based model, similar to Ethereum's. The network currently supports account-to-account and account-to-contract transactions. Batch transactions will be supported in later versions.

Transaction Types in Zilliqa

There are 3 different types of transactions in the Zilliqa network:

  • Type I - User account to user account transactions
  • Type II - Simple user account to contract transactions
  • Type III - Complicated user account to contract transactions

Transactions are allocated to each shard based on the last few bits of the sender's and the recipient's addresses. Hence:

  1. All Type I and most Type II transactions are handled within a shard and

  2. Some Type II transactions and all Type III transactions that require cross-shard communications are handled by the DS Committee. transaction

The transactions made in point 2 as stated above are only processed after shards have finished processing the transactions in point 1. This eliminates the case in which conflicting transactions get handled in parallel.

Node Types in Zilliqa

There are 5 types of nodes on the Zilliqa network:

  • The shard nodes handle the Type I and Type II intra-shard transactions, and submit a micro TX-block signed. They get rewarded based on the number of signatures produced during this DS epoch.
  • The DS nodes handle the assembling of micro TX-blocks submitted by the shards. They also process Type II and Type III transactions that are cross-shard transactions. They are also rewarded based on the number of signatures produced during this DS epoch.
  • The lookup nodes handle the dispatching of transactions to the correct shard and assist seed nodes in fetching states and transaction history. They earn 5% of the transaction fees and coinbase reward.
  • The seed nodes help to forward transactions to lookup nodes, assist new validating nodes in joining the network by providing the DS-blocks history, and expose transactional APIs to allow explorer/wallets to send transactions and fetch historical transaction data. They share the rewards earned by lookup nodes.
  • The archival storage fetches historical data including transactions and blocks from seed nodes every DS epoch and store them in LevelDB. They also provide the historical data for new seed nodes that are joining.


MB4 and SD4 are for the Type II and Type III cross-shard transactions as discussed earlier, and they will be handled and processed by the DS committee. After MB4 and SD4, all MBs and SDs will be aggregated into FB and FSD respectively.

Unit Accounting

Zilliqa has its base unit, Zil. However, Zilliqa supports up to 12 decimal placing of its base unit.

1 Zil1 Zil
0.1 Zil---
0.01 Zil---
0.001 Zil---
0.0001 Zil---
0.00001 Zil---
0.000001 Zil1 Li
0.0000001 Zil---
0.00000001 Zil---
0.000000001 Zil---
0.0000000001 Zil---
0.00000000001 Zil---
0.00000000001 Zil1 Qa

Gas Accounting

The gas accounting in Zilliqa has the same format as that of Ethereum. There is a gas limit that is set based on the complexity of the computation involved in processing a transaction, and there is a gas price (in the denomination Li) that is set by the free market.

The initial gas price will be set at 1,000 Li at the bootstrap phase. A simple account-to-account transaction costs 1,000 Li as well.

Smart Contracts in Zilliqa

Zilliqa Research created a domain-specific functional programming language called Scilla to power its high throughput smart contract platform safely. Scilla, short for Smart Contract Intermediate Level Language, is designed as a principled language with smart contract safety in mind.

Scilla imposes a structure on smart contracts that will make applications running on Zilliqa less vulnerable to attacks by eliminating certain known vulnerabilities directly at the language-level. Furthermore, the principled structure of Scilla will make applications inherently more secure.

A more detailed explanation of Scilla can be found here.

Zilliqa uses JSON-RPC protocol to broadcast transactions in the network. Sending of ZILs and deploying/calling of contracts are all done via JSON-RPC methods. Several SDKs in different programming languages are made available for developers to choose from in order to ease their dApp development process.


Social Community Overview & Strategy

On community building, the team states that they "believe in information exchange & providing regular updates, proactive communication on roadblocks and opportunities, timely responses to all possible queries and urgent issues, as well as collaborative problem-solving." Moving forward, the team looks to further engaging both its technical and non-technical community in creative and educational ways, focusing heavily on industry awareness and general blockchain knowledge.

The team cites education as the most important community interaction. As part of this, Zilliqa organised the Blockchain A-Z Workshop at King's College London (in collaboration with the KCL Blockchain Society). Additionally, Zilliqa was recently a partner of the Future of Blockchain hackathon, educating student developers from Cambridge, Oxford, Imperial, LSE, UCL, and KCL.

Zilliqa also regularly engage its developer and miner communities via its Ecosystem Grant programme. As of writing, Zilliqa has engaged 40 different teams from 19 different countries and the team states they look to expanding this engagement with the help of a new streaming system that further streamlines the grant application and development process. The team also recently launched the ZILHive Accelerator programme in partnership with LongHash Incubator to incubate teams building on top of Zilliqa platform.

Community and Social Channels


Zilliqa competes with current smart contract processing platforms, such as Ethereum, EOS, Hashgraph, and NEO. The team provides the following comments regarding each of these competing projects:

CompetitorGoalsDrawbacksZilliqa's Approach
EthereumAchieve scalability by implementing state shardingThe Validator Manager Contract (“VMC”) might become a single point of failurePhase 1 of Ethereum 2.0 does not provide finality. Phase 1 of Ethereum 2.0 does not involve cross-shard communicationZilliqa currently utilizes network sharding to achieve scalability, but will implement state sharding in the future. Zilliqa does not rely any central entity or contractZilliqa provides finality to the state through its PBFT Protocol.
EOSAchieve scalability using dPoS consensus mechanismThe small number of delegates are relatively easy to pin point and brings security risksHowever increasing the number of delegates will also increase latency, thus throughput will dropdPoS does not guarantee finalityZilliqa's pBFT offers finality. The consensus in Zilliqa is run in parallel within a set of around 600 nodes, whose size is large enough to make centralisation risk low
HashgraphAchieve security and scalability by abandoning blockchain and using a gossip protocol insteadHashgraph is currently a private ledger, it has yet to come up with technical details for its deployment as a public ledgerZilliqa has already utilized a hybrid mode with pBFT for consensus and PoW for preventing sybril attacks
NEONEO uses dBFT consensus to achieve scalabilityIf the number of bookkeeping nodes is large, the collateral locks away liquidity from the marketIf the number of bookkeeping nodes is small, then it brings centralization risksZilliqa uses standard (practical) BFT protocol and requires the protocol be run with a sufficiently large number of nodes. The nodes however are not required to put up collateral and hence the market liquidity is not affected. Sharding technology enables the throughput to increase linearly with the number of nodes